What is Video Modeling?
Video modeling can be used to teach a new skill to an individual, with the video acting as a visual model of the target skill.
There are three main types of video modeling: (Hall et al., 2017)
1. Basic: another person (an adult or peer) performs the target skill
2. Self: the learner performs the target behaviour and someone films it
3. Point of view: the video is shown from the learner’s perspective
Benefits of Video Modeling
- Video modeling can be combined with other teaching strategies, such as prompt fading, role playing, and reinforcement.
- It is an evidence-based strategy for teaching individuals with ASD (Fleury et al., 2012).
- It is cost effective and can be done using various devices (phone, tablet, camera, computer) that the family may already have or on an FCPG iPad.
- It requires minimal training to implement video modeling.
- Video modeling can be individualized for each student.
- It can target multiple different skills (Barnett, 2018).
- Teaching through video modeling can require little or no adult prompting, which can be helpful for individuals who are highly prompt dependent (Wilson, 2013).
What Skills Can be Taught with Video Modeling?
Video modeling can be used to teach a number of different skills! Current research shows that video modeling has been successful in teaching:
- Language and communication skills (Wilson, 2013, Johnson et al, 2017)
- Social skills (Wang et al, 2011)
- Play skills (Paterson & Arco,2007, Dupere, MacDonald, & Ahearn, 2013, Kleeberger & Mirenda, 2010, Barnett, 2018)
- Increasing compliance and decreasing aggression (Axelrod et al., 2014)
- Self-monitoring (Barnett, 2018)
- Functional skills (Barnett, 2018)
- Independence (Wilson, 2013)
- Transitions (Cihak et al., 2010, Hall et al., 2017, Spriggs et al., 2014, Taber-Doughty et al., 2013)
How can I use it?
Your FCPG team can teach you how to create effective video models! Each child is unique and will require slightly different teaching strategies, so your FCPG consultant can assist you with implementing video modeling with your child.
The basic steps to using video modeling include: (Wilson, 2013, Hall et al., 2017)
- Identify the target behaviour.
- Make sure it is observable and measurable.
- Record the video.
- You can use a script or a task analysis to break down the behaviour/skill.
- Present the video to the learner.
- If needed, prompt the learner to attend to the video.
- Give instructions for how the learner can perform the behaviour.
- Have the learner imitate the target behaviour.
- Use prompting or other effective teaching strategies for the learner.
- Reinforce the learner’s behaviour!
- Fade out prompting and fade out the video until the learner is completing the skill independently.
Online Video Model Examples
With the internet at our fingertips, there are also tons of great video models out there! Here are just a few examples of video models you can access:
Tying shoes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsydRalh0ow
Brushing teeth: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fYuMzA9Js8
Going to the dentist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_n1aZy1NV8
Playing with baby doll: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jg3o1rJbO1Y
Playing with cars: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1f-b_rhNbk
You may also be interested in: How Can I be an Advocate for my Child with Special Needs?
Family Centred Practices Group designs and monitors intervention programs for families with young children who have been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder or related disability. Family Centred Practices Group is delighted to announce we are Canada’s first and only Behavioural Health Center of Excellence (BHCOE).
The BHCOE is a reputable, international accrediting body in the field of behaviour analysis. Their assessments are developed by experts in the field to distinguish exceptional behavioural health providers. This accreditation certifies a continued demonstration of exceptional international clinical and administrative standards deemed by an independent third-party evaluator.
The quality of work performed by our staff, the effectiveness of our clinical applications, and the attentiveness to each child’s individual needs is at the highest standard. To maximize a child’s opportunity to reach his or her full potential, we emphasize a proactive approach to teaching and learning. We accomplish this by capitalizing on naturally occurring motivational conditions and the principles of positive reinforcement. Through the use of these and other behaviour analytic practices, a child’s ability to experience success across environments is enhanced.
We gratefully serve families all across the Lower Mainland.This includes families living in the regional districts of Greater Vancouver and the Fraser Valley.
Tina Linton, M.Ed., BCBA – Clinical Director
Tina Linton received her Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of Guelph in Ontario and her Masters degree in Special Education with a concentration in Autism and Developmental Disabilities at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. She is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA™) with over 20 years of experience working with children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in home, school, and community based programs. Tina began her career in Ontario working as a Behavioural Interventionist. She moved to Victoria, BC where she continued supporting families of children with ASD and assisted with the start up of the Autism Early Intervention Program at the Queen Alexandra Center for Children’s Health in her role as an Autism Interventionist. When she moved to Vancouver, Tina began working with the Family Centred Practices Group and, after completing her Masters, was promoted to the role of Senior Behavioural Consultant. Tina also worked with Douglas College in their Behavioural Interventionist Citation Program and is a founding partner of the “Behavioural Interventionist Training Partnership”. Tina assumed the role of Clinical Director in November of 2008 and began managing the business.
Barnett, J. H. (2018). Three Evidence-Based Strategies that Support Social Skills and Play Among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(6), 665-672. doi:10.1007/s10643-018-0911-0
Cihak, D., Fahrenkrog, C., Ayres, K. M., & Smith, C. (2010). The use of video modeling via a video iPod and a system of least prompts to improve transitional behaviors for students with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 103-115. doi:10.1177/1098300709332346
Dupere, S., Macdonald, R. P., & Ahearn, W. H. (2013). Using video modeling with substitutable loops to teach varied play to children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,46(3), 662-668. doi:10.1002/jaba.68
Fleury, V. P., Thompson, J. L., & Wong, C. (2015). Learning how to be a student: An overview of instructional practices targeting school readiness skills for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Modification, 39(1), 69-97. doi:10.1177/0145445514551384
Hall, C., Hollingshead, A., & Christman, J. (2019). Implementing video modeling to improve transitions within activities in inclusive classrooms. Intervention in School and Clinic, 54(4), 235-240. doi:10.1177/1053451217736870
Kleeberger, V., & Mirenda, P. (2008). Teaching Generalized Imitation Skills to a Preschooler With Autism Using Video Modeling. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 116–127. doi: 10.1177/1098300708329279
Paterson, C. R., & Arco, L. (2007). Using Video Modeling for Generalizing Toy Play in Children With Autism. Behavior Modification,31(5), 660-681. doi:10.1177/0145445507301651
Spriggs, A. D., Knight, V., & Sherrow, L. (2014). Talking Picture Schedules: Embedding Video Models into Visual Activity Schedules to Increase Independence for Students with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(12), 3846-3861. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2315-3
Taber-Doughy, T., Miller, B., Shurr, J., & Wiles, B. (2013). Portable and accessible video modeling: Teaching a series of novel skills within school and community settings. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 48(2), 147-163.
Wang, S., Cui, Y., & Parrila, R. (2011). Examining the effectiveness of peer-mediated and video-modeling social skills interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis in single-case research using HLM. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders,5(1), 562-569. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.06.023
Wilson, K. P. (2013). Incorporating video modeling into a school-based intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 44(1), 105-117. doi:10.1044